Yenişehir Gate (İznik)

   Yenişehir Gate, which is the south entrance gate of the Ancient Nicaea City, is located on the road connecting Nicaea to the other cities in Bithynia State i.e. Prusa ad Olympum/Prusaprosto Olympo (Bursa) and Apameia (Mudanya) Cities and the other cities in the Asia State. Yenişehir gate is similar to Istanbul and Lefke Gates, which are the north and east gates of the city. 

    Nicaea City was exposed to intense settlement upon the domination of the Roman Empire. The first phase of Yenişehir Gate, which was among these settlement activities, dates back to the Period of Flavian Dynasty (69-96 AD). In this period, the entrance of cities was decorated with aesthetic architectural elements to show and identify the richness and reputation of the city symbolically. Arches of Honor were built at the south entrance of the city for propaganda purposes. This architectural element located at the north and east entrance of the city is slightly different at the south entrance: the arch of honor made with marble block pieces has an arched single passage. This structure symbolically welcomed those entering the city as an Arch of Honor during the 200-year long pax Romana (= Roman Peace). Its function changed after this period ended upon the invasion of the Goths. The Arch of Honor that was united with the city wall built between 253 and 270 AD (the periods of the Emperors Gallienus and Gothicus) was converted into a defense structure. In order to reinforce it, a tower was built in the east side of the Arch of Honor. Also, an enclosed atrium was created by constructing another entrance on the part of the gate facing the city center, the ruins of which can only be seen today. The city walls and gates were exposed to several repairs until the Period of Laskaris. A second city wall was built in front of the existing wall line for the purpose of strengthening the defense structures in the 13th Century AD. A third gate was built that had arched central passage almost on the same line with the early period gate axis. Bricks and rubble stone were used for the construction of the city wall and gate. A tower was built on the both sides of the gate to strengthen the defense.